Process Hazards Analysis (PHA) — including a full range of facilitated/workshop studies like HAZOP, LOPA, HAZID, and a full-range of auditing — primarily using our Open PHA™ HAZOP/LOPA Documentation Software, and Open Audit™ Documentation Software.
PHA is a structured qualitative multi-discipline assessment(s) of the potential hazards associated with a chemical process.
PHA identifies potential causes and consequences of unwanted or unplanned releases of hazardous chemicals, a loss of containment. It is used to derive a specific list of recommendations associated with safety issues for further evaluation or necessary changes to prevent or minimize the consequences.
In the United States, the OSHA process safety management regulation for hazardous chemicals was put into place in 1992, caused PHA to become much more prevalent, but most PHA methodologies were developed and implemented far earlier.
HAZOP recommendations, based on causes and consequences (effects), need further attention. Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) is commonly used to assess the risk of the areas identified in the HAZOP to determine the target SIL (safety integrity level) required to reduce the risk to an acceptable level. LOPA uses semi-quantitative techniques to deal with probabilities whereas a complex scenario would be analyzed using quantitative results analysis (QRA) potentially in a fault-tree tool like Arbor™.
HAZOP and LOPA studies are easily documented in software tools today like OpenPHA™.
In addition to process safety, Kenexis has a disciplined approach to reviewing PHAs, especially HAZOPs, for threat vectors that have real significant consequences. The process is called Security PHA Review. You can read more about in our post on the subject or get the book that goes into detail at the ISA.org.